Christy Greco

Digital Storytelling with Photo Story for a ninth-grade World History & Cultures class

The Emergence of the First Global Age (1350 – 1770)
The Age of Exploration


Standards

English Language Arts Standards » Reading: Literature » Grade 9-10

1. Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language evokes a sense of time and place; how it sets a formal or informal tone).

English Language Arts Standards » Reading: Informational Text » Grade 9-10

1. Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language of a court opinion differs from that of a newspaper).

7. Analyze various accounts of a subject told in different mediums (e.g., a person’s life story in both print and multimedia), determining which details are emphasized in each account.
8. Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning.

English Language Arts Standards » Writing » Grade 9-10

3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.
Production and Distribution of Writing
4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)
5. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience.
6. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products, taking advantage of technology’s capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and dynamically.

7. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
8. Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.

10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.

English Language Arts Standards » Speaking & Listening » Grade 9-10

1. Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 9–10 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
2. Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source.
3. Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, identifying any fallacious reasoning or exaggerated or distorted evidence.

4. Present information, findings, and supporting evidence clearly, concisely, and logically such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and task.
5. Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest.
6. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate.

English Language Arts Standards » Language » Grade 9-10

1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

3. Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.
Write and edit work so that it conforms to the guidelines in a style manual (e.g., , Turabian’s ) appropriate for the discipline and writing type.

5. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.

English Language Arts Standards » History/Social Studies » Grades 9-10

1. Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources, attending to such features as the date and origin of the information.
2. Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of how key events or ideas develop over the course of the text.
3. Analyze in detail a series of events described in a text; determine whether earlier events caused later ones or simply preceded them.

4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary describing political, social, or economic aspects of history/social science.
5. Analyze how a text uses structure to emphasize key points or advance an explanation or analysis.
6. Compare the point of view of two or more authors for how they treat the same or similar topics, including which details they include and emphasize in their respective accounts.

8. Assess the extent to which the reasoning and evidence in a text support the author’s claims.
9. Compare and contrast treatments of the same topic in several primary and secondary sources.

English Language Arts Standards » Writing/HST » Grades 9-10

1. Write arguments focused on .
2. Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.

4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
5. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience.
6. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products, taking advantage of technology’s capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and dynamically.

8. Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.
9. Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

Keywords

Persuasive communication, digital storytelling, Photo Story 3, hyperlinking narrative

Objectives

The students will be able to:

  • Use online resources including websites and databases to research a topic.
  • Locate, analyze, interpret, and evaluate primary source documents.
  • Collect digital images.
  • Arrange digital images to tell a historically accurate story.
  • Use Microsoft Photo Story 3 to create a video.
  • Use Microsoft Word to write a historical narrative from a specific perspective or point of view.
  • Provide peers with constructive feedback by critique a classmate’s project.
  • Evaluate online resources for appropriate and relevant content.
  • Hyperlink a Microsoft Word document to online resources.
  • Make connections between the events of the past and the realities of today.

Social Studies Core Concepts

The students will be able to:
  • Determine the role of natural resources, climate, and topography in European exploration, colonization, and settlement patterns.

  • Assess the role of mercantilism in stimulating European expansion through trade, conquest, and colonization.

  • Determine the effects of increased global trade and the importation of gold and silver from the New World on inflation in Europe, Southwest Asia, and Africa.

  • Assess the political, social, and economic impact of the Columbian Exchange of plants, animals, ideas, and pathogens on Europeans and Native Americans.

  • Compare slavery practices and other forms of coerced labor or social bondage common in East Africa, West Africa, Southwest Asia, Europe, and the Americas.

  • Analyze various motivations for the Atlantic slave trade and the impact on Europeans, Africans, and Americans.

  • Explain how the new social stratification created by voluntary and coerced interactions among Native Americans, Africans, and Europeans in Spanish colonies laid the foundation for conflict.

  • Assess the impact of economic, political, and social policies and practices regarding African slaves, indigenous peoples, and Europeans in the Spanish and Portuguese colonies.

  • Analyze the political, cultural, and moral role of Catholic and Protestant Christianity in the European colonies.

Unit Description

In this unit students will be studying how to read memoirs, narratives, and other primary sources documents.The students will be using these resources to gain background knowledge that will enhance their ability to empathize with the people of the time period that we are studying.

The students will work in groups of no more that three students.Each group will be responsible for telling the story of their chosen person/group as if they were living in the past.Students will gather resources to put together a five-minute video using Microsoft Photo Story 3 to depict the images, emotions, feelings, and beliefs of the people of the past.Students are to choose a specific perspective or point of view to tell their story from. For example, they might choose to be a Spanish Conquistador, an Aztec, a Portuguese sailor, a West African farmer, etc.The video must include a minimum of twenty digital images.The students will choose an appropriate piece of modern music to play in the background of their video.The music must express the mood, tone, and/or feelings of what the students are explaining in their video.Students should read the lyrics of the song(s) that they use in order to make sure that they are appropriate.They should also select music that will assist in getting their point of view across.

The students will type the narration to their video and submit it electronically to the teacher.Once they have been read and peer edited (by teacher determined groups) the students will revise and resubmit.

Once students have completed and submitted their Photo Story videos they will be uploaded onto the school resource drive for all of the school to view.The students will bring in their earphones and we will go to the computer lab to watch all of the videos.Each group of students will be assigned two partner groups.Although the students will view all of the videos, they will need to critique the work of their two partner groups.After the students have viewed the videos they will go to our ClassJump.com website and post at least one positive comment and one piece of constructive criticism for the two groups that they have been assigned to critique.All comments will be monitored by the teacher and inappropriate behavior by students (in the form of their comments) will be addressed with disciplinary action by the school administration.

After the viewing and critiquing has been completed the students will be assigned a partner group to work with.The students will now read each other’s narratives and turn them into hyperlinking narratives.They will search the internet to find appropriate online resources to link the key concepts and ideas of the narrative to.Each of the links should bring the students to relevant online resources that further explain, discuss or enhance the explanation of the content information.When complete, each narrative will have a minimum on ten links.

When working on this project students will need to think about the complete story that they want to tell.For example, if a student chooses a explorer, he/she should include where the explorer is from, where he travels to, why he travels, who he interacts with and comes in contact with, what the land was like when he got to his destination, how he got there, what kind of tools were used during the voyage, what they did when they arrived at their destination, etc.If the students choose a native person they should consider the customs, religion, traditions, rituals, work, living arrangements, lifestyle, interaction with the Europeans, changes resulting from exploration, etc.Students should also include at least three content-specific maps in their videos.

Necessary Technology

  • PC computers with Internet access
  • Microsoft Photo Story 3
  • A microphone or headset microphone
  • Microsoft Word
  • Access to the school resources drive

Supplementary Resources for Photo Story

Microsoft Photo Story 3
http://www.microsoft.com/windowsxp/using/digitalphotography/photostory/default.mspx

Using Photo Story in the Classroom
http://www.classroom20.com/group/usingphotostoryintheclassroom

Making Book Trailers with Photo Story 3
http://www.techlearning.com/article/8160

Photo Story in the Social Studies Classroom
http://cnx.org/content/m19686/latest/

Technology Resource Teachers
http://sites.fcps.org/trt/photostory

Digital Storytelling
http://www.21things4teachers.net/9---digital-story-telling.html

PhotoStory
http://technology-to-enhance-ed.wikispaces.com/PhotoStory

Digital Storytelling
http://swhs.swisd.net/support/Resources/Digital%20Storytelling.pdf

Photo Story Tutorial
http://www.screencast.com/t/YTg0NmFkN


Supplementary Resources for Research and Copyright Information

Copyright and Fair Use in the Classroom, on the Internet, and the World Wide Web
http://www.umuc.edu/library/copy.shtml

Copyright Kids
http://www.copyrightkids.org/

Copyright for Students
http://www.bsu.edu/library/collections/copyright/students/

Creative Commons
http://creativecommons.org/

Supplementary Resources for World History

Pearson Prentice Hall World History
http://www.phschool.com/webcodes10/index.cfm?fuseaction=home.gotoWebCode&wcprefix=nak&wcsuffix=9999


Activities

Day 1:Introduction

The students will be introduced to the term “global age”.As a class we will brainstorm what that means today.The students will give examples of how nations from around the world interact with each other.We will put these examples on the board.Then the students will work in groups of four or five to evaluate the necessity or benefit of each of the examples.They will discuss what we can and cannot live without and then determine if there is an available alternative to international relations and global interaction.After the students have had time to work in their groups we will come back together as a class and each group will contribute a summary of the conclusions that they have come up with.After the discussion the students will be asked why nations interact with each other.They will need to decide if they believe that people would be better off if all nations were isolationist and did not interact with each other.This will be done through an interactive discussion.The students will then go back to their small groups and either draw a picture, write a poem, or create a graphic organizer for what our country would be like if it had no interaction with other countries.Their answers will be shared at the beginning of the class on Day 2.

Day 2:Explanation of the project and selection of project topics

The class will begin with the students presenting their pictures, poems, and graphic organizers.They will show that the United States would be very different if we were not involved internationally.After they have presented they will be asked why people live in the United States.As a class we will brainstorm and list their ideas on the board.Then the students will be asked how the people came to the United States.The students will share answers until we get to the idea that the Native Americans have been living here for thousands of years, but Europeans did not come to the land that we know as the Americas until the 1400s.From there we will introduce the First Global Age (1350-1770) with a United Streaming video, The Age of Discovery (1400-1550)

Once the unit topic has been introduced the project will be explained to the students.They will be told that they will be meeting in the media center for six days to research and work on their projects.They will be told that they need to bring their headphones to view videos and tutorials and to sample music for their project.They should also bring their flash drives so they can work between home and school. The students will be given a list of possible project topics.A PowerPoint presentation will be used to show the students a brief summary of each of the topics so they become familiar with the content.They will need to identify which topics they would like to work on.On the list that they received they will need to place a 1 next to their first choice, a 2 next to their second choice, and a 3 next to their third choice.They will be told that there is not guarantee that they will receive any of their choices, but I will try my best to accommodate their requests.At the end of the school day I will review the students’ requests and put them into groups (of three) based on the topics that they selected.

Days 3-8:Research, collection of resources, and creation of the project

The students will work on the computers in the media center to collect the twenty digital images and music that they need for their assignment.They will take notes as they read and keep a works cited/references page in order to keep track of the resources that they have used.The students will be reminded that they not only need the pictures and music, but they need to tell a story, so they need to know the relevant content information.They will be telling their story from a certain perspective or point of view, so they will need to find the appropriate resources to support that perspective or point of view.Students will also be reminded of the importance of primary sources, and how they will help them to better understand what happened at the time we are studying.

When the students find images and music they will save them in one file labeled specifically for this project.They will write their notes in a Microsoft Word file that will guide their narration (when they are ready to start writing it).

After the students have collected their images and music they will begin using Microsoft Photo Story to create their videos, but first they will watch a Photo Story tutorial to introduce them to using the program.When the students feel comfortable with Photo Story they will import their images, begin arranging them in order to create their “story” and achieve their desired effect, add image effects when necessary, and add a title or caption to identify each image.When they are finished the students will need to write their narration.As they are writing if they feel that they need to change the order of the images or add or remove images, they may do so to enhance their projects.

The groups’ narrations need to be typed in a Microsoft Word document.When they have finished writing the narration they will need to submit it to the teacher for peer editing and approval.Students will work together to edit each other’s narratives for spelling, mechanics, usage, content, and flow.After editing is complete students will make corrections to their work and begin practicing reading their narration as they view their pictures.Once the students are ready they will go to a quiet area of the media center to record their narration.

The next step is selecting background music.Students need to select appropriate music.It must be modern, appropriate, and it must enhance the project by connecting with the emotions of the viewer.The music should help convince the viewer to agree with the students’ perspective or point of view.The music should be powerful, but it should not overpower the students’ speaking voices.

After the music has been selected and added to the Photo Story project the students should review their video, make any necessary changes, save their final video, and submit it to the teacher for review.After teacher review and peer editing, the teacher will post the videos to the school resources drive for all to view.

The students must include a works cited/references page with their narration.This will include all of the works that they have referenced and used to create their projects.They must give appropriate credit to all of the resources that they have used.Students need to be extremely responsible about not violating copyright laws.Although their work will not be published online, they want to make sure that they follow the law as if they were.Using works with Creative Commons licenses will be an easy way for students to obey copyright laws.They need to know that it is not good enough to just cite a resource, they need to make sure that they are not in violation of copyright when they use someone else’swork.

Day 9:Viewing the projects

The students will come to the media center and watch each other’s videos.They will be assigned two partner groups and they will constructively critique those two videos.The students will need to provide their partner groups with feedback that will require a minimum of one positive comment and one piece of constructive criticism.This will be posted to the message board on the teacher’s site on ClassJump.com.All comments will be monitored and inappropriate postings will result in disciplinary action for the student.The students will be able to read the message board to review the critiques of their peers.

Day 10:Creating a hyperlinking narrative

The students will be assigned to read another group’s narrative.They will be responsible for hyperlinking key ideas, people, places, concepts, etc. to relevant and informative websites that will enhance the students’ knowledge of the content material and provide further research opportunities to those interested in learning more about the topic.Students need to review various websites and evaluate which are the best to include.Overall there needs to be at least ten links and they must be grade-level appropriate.

After the students have hyperlinked the narratives they are to submit them to the teacher for review.They will then be posted to the school resource drive.

Day 11:Using the Internet for additional research and conclusion

Now that the students have hyperlinked another group’s narrative they will read all of them and explore the websites that their peers have selected.When the students have finished going through all of the narratives they will choose the websites that they believe were their “top three”.The chosen websites should be the ones that the students felt were the most informative and easiest to navigate.The teacher will put together a list of the “winning” websites and post it to the school resources drive for the students to use for future research.

On the last day of the unit the teacher will review the key ideas that the students brainstormed on the first day.By completing their unit projects the students will be able to connect how the global encounters of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries changed the lives of the people of that time and shaped the world in which we live today.

Assessment


Approaches Expectations
Meets Expectations
Exceeds Expectations

Digital Images
Less than 20 images are included and few or no images effectively communicate the purpose of the presentation.
Less than 20 quality images are included, but most of them effectively communicate the purpose of the presentation
At least 20 qualityimages are included and they all effectively communicate the purpose of the video

Music
Music is not used, is not modern, is not appropriate, or is a distraction to the video
Music is not modernbut is used purposefully, appropriately, and effectively
Music is modern andis used purposefully, appropriately, effectively, and consistently throughout the video

Supporting Evidence
Does not include any facts, quotes, examples, details, or evidence
Ineffectively uses facts, quotes, examples, details, and evidence
Effectively uses facts, quotes, examples, details, and evidence

Narration
(oral and typed)
Narration is not clearly written or is not clearly spoken
Narration in general is clearly written and spoken

Narration is expertly written and spoken
Organization, Main Idea, Perspective, and Point of View
The images are not organized and thereis no evidence of a main idea, specific perspective, or point of view
The images are organized and the main idea is clearly presented, but the story is not told froma specific perspective or point of view

Images are well organized and the main idea, perspective, and point of view are clearly presented
Media Integration
Sequence, timing, transitions, titles, and tone of voice are not used effectively or thoughtfully
Sequence, timing, transitions, titles, and tone of voice are generally used effectively and thoughtfully
Sequence, timing, transitions, titles, and tone of voice are consistently used effectively and thoughtfully

Documentation of Sources
Sources are not clearly or consistently documented for copyright purposeson the works cited/references page of the narrative
Most sources are clearly and correctly documented for copyright purposes on the works cited/references page of the narrative
All sources are clearly and correctly documented for copyright purposes on the works cited/references page of the narrative

Credibility of Research
Few or no facts or quotes are used or they are from sources without expertise in the topic
Many facts and quotes are form sources that have experience or expertise in the topic
Most or all facts and quotes are from sources that have extensive experience and expertise in the topic

Constructive Criticism
The criticism in inappropriate and/ordoes not include any recommendation for improvement and/or refinement
The criticism is appropriate but does not include any recommendation for improvement and/or refinement
The criticism is appropriate, meaningful, and includes recommendation for improvement and/or refinement

Hyperlinks
(for the narrative)
Few of the websites are appropriate and reliable sources
Many of the websites are appropriate and reliable sources
All of the websites are appropriate andreliable sources




References

Shamburg, C. (2008). English Language Arts: Units for Grades 9-12. Washington, DC: International Society for Technology in Education.

Discovery Education
http://streaming.discoveryeducation.com/

New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards for Social Studieshttp://www.state.nj.us/education/cccs/2009/std6_ss.doc

New Jersey National Core Curriculum Standards K-12
http://www.corestandards.org/Standards/K12/


Rationale for the Curriculum Unit

The unit that I have developed has been designed for a ninth-grade World History class.The curriculum for this class begins with an overview of the late Middle Ages and ends with the twenty-first century.With such as enormous amount of information to cover in a short period of time, there is a need to maximize every possible learning opportunity for the students.

The activities in this lesson include cooperative brainstorming, pair sharing, watching a documentary video, interpreting primary sources, creating a Photo Story video, analyzing song lyrics, peer editing, critiquing, and evaluating websites.The students are going to do all of that while they learn the historical content information, and they are going to do it in less than three weeks of school.This unit does not describe the only way to teach this content, but it does provide a much more rewarding and meaningful experience for the students.It is important to “increase the students’ cognitive and creative skills”, (Knobel & Lankshear, 2010, p. 71).If you do this at the same time the students will improve their critical thinking abilities without having to sit at their desks and answer higher-level thinking questions to do so.They will be actively engaged in accurately ordering their videos and searching for appropriate websites to link the narratives to.The students will be learning by doing; they will not only learn the content information, but they will also learn skills that they will be able to apply to other classes and possibly in future employment opportunities.They will be completely responsible for mastering the key concepts of the unit, but they will not even realize how much reading and studying they will be doing because that will only be the means to the end.

Students will not be reading for the sake of reading.Instead they will be reading to determine the appropriate chronological progression of explorers in order to make an accurate video.The students’ narration will pretty much be a “research paper”, but it will not seem that way to them because it will just be the script that they will be using to narrate their video.When the students search for a song to use for their background music they will need to understand the ideas, beliefs, and experiences of the people who lived in the past in order to correctly select appropriate music.When they read the lyrics and listen to the music they will be looking for connections between the past and the present.When they find the “right” song(s) they will be able to explain why they made those choices.Student learning will be evident throughout this project.Even if some students are masters at Photo Story or navigating the web they will have the opportunity to work with their partners who may be less proficient, and by helping their partners they will also be reinforcing their own learning.

Jenkins says that “a participatory culture is one in which members believe their contributions matter, and feel some degree of social connection with one another”, (Jenkins, 2006, p. 3).The assignments in this unit are designed around the idea of student collaboration.The students will be working together, learning from each other, and expressing their ideas and opinions to each other as they create their projects.They will be working in small groups, sharing what they have created, and critiquing the work of their classmates.When they are finished they will take the narrative of another group and find appropriate websites to enhance and increase learning opportunities for each other.Not only does this unit encourage student participation, but it relies on it.Hopefully, throughout the time allotted, students will make new acquaintances, and maybe even new friends.They will need to trust each other.It is probable that students might say something like, “oh don’t watch mine, it’s not very good”.Most likely they do not mean that.They want you to watch their video and they want you to tell them how wonderful it is.Even the shyest of students will open up with a huge mile when they see your positive reaction to something that they have created.

After completing this project students will have the necessary skills to create other videos.They will have had practice at evaluating online content for appropriateness and correct information.They will be able to work cooperatively with others in order to achieve an end goal.The Pew study, as cited by Lenhardt & Madden (2005), suggests “young people who create and circulate their own media are more likely to respect the intellectual property rights of others because they feel a greater stake in the cultural economy” (Jenkins, 2006, p. 10).If creating five-minute videos about the Age of Exploration can help move our students toward becoming responsible producers and users of media, then this unit is worth every minute of the time that it will take to complete.

Jenkins writes about the “importance of coupling the pedagogical use of new media technologies with a greater focus on media literacy education” (Jenkins, 2006, p. 15).This unit works with media literacy skills in multiple ways.Students must use the internet to find digital images, songs, informative websites, and appropriate primary source documents.They must use their researching and accessing skills to find the materials that are necessary for them to create their own work.They need to know how to evaluate the work of others in order for them to find the best materials to use in their own projects.Jenkins says that even when media content has been determined credible, it is vital for students to also identify and analyze the perspective of the producer: who is presenting what to whom, and why (Jenkins, 2006, p. 45).In this unit the students will need to create their video from the perspective or point of view of someone who was living during the time period that they are studying.In order to do that, they must be able to find content information that supports their point of view.They will need to have the skills to evaluate if the resources they find are in fact supporting their perspective.If they are not, they will need to keep looking for more resources.This unit will infuse the instruction of new media technology use and media literacy education.The stunts will be improving their ability to assess and evaluate credible media resources while they are learning to use new media technology to produce their own work.

The decision was made to refrain from posting the students’ videos online.Although that would be an excellent place for the students to receive feedback from family members, teachers and students in other areas of the country or the world, or experts in the fields of Digital Storytelling or Global Exploration, the school does not currently allow students to access websites like Youtube or TeacherTube, so in order to have somewhat of an audience, the videos will be posted to the school’s resources drive.The materials housed on this drive can be accessed anywhere in the school district, so not only will the class watch each other’s videos, but the students will have the opportunity to tell their friends or other teachers to take a look at their published work.Even though this unit does not allow for online publication, the students will be introduced to copyright law, “fair use”, and the ways to use digital resources legally.It is important for them to know the rules and follow them so when they do have the opportunity to post to the Internet in school, or when they do it on their own at home, at least they are knowledgeable about the law and the seriousness of breaking it.

When the class completes this unit the students will have a lot to be proud of.They will have created a video, written a narrative, performed detailed research, assisted their classmates, and learned about the Age of Exploration.Even though some of the tasks may have been tedious or challenging, there is a good chance that at some point the students probably had a little fun working on them.In the end they will feel like they have accomplished something, which they have, and it will be worth all of the hard work they put into it.


References

Knobel, M. and Lankshear, C. (eds.) (2010). DIY Media: Sharing, Creating and Learning with New Media. New York: Peter Lang.

Jenkins, H., with R. Purushotma, K. Clinton, M. Weigel, & A. Robison (2006). Confronting the Challenges of Participatory Culture: Media Education for the 21st Century. Occasional Paper. Boston, MA: MIT/MacArthur Foundation. Available from: http://tinyurl.com/2uztw4